Volume 8, Issue 1 (3-2022)                   J. Hum. Environ. Health Promot 2022, 8(1): 27-34 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Skandari S, Rezaee S, Dinmohammadi F, Mohseni M. Polarographic Evaluation of Lead and Cadmium in Livers of Sheep in Zanjan and Sanandaj Cities, Iran. J. Hum. Environ. Health Promot. 2022; 8 (1) :27-34
URL: http://zums.ac.ir/jhehp/article-1-472-en.html
1- Department of Food and Drug Control, School of Pharmacy, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.
2- Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.
3- Physicochemical and Microbial Control Lab, School of Pharmacy, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.
Abstract:   (1026 Views)
Background: Lead and cadmium can enter the human body through consuming the liver of animals such as sheep, which may accumulate and cause adverse effects. The levels of lead and cadmium in the liver samples of slaughtered sheep in Zanjan and Sanandaj were investigated in the summer of 2014.
Methods: 96 Samples were collected from both cities. Lead and cadmium levels were measured by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) after digestion with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide in 3 steps by a 400-watt microwave digester. Lead and cadmium concentrations were determined in µg/L using standard solutions of lead and cadmium as standard addition in their specific potential, -0.42 and -0.58 V for lead and cadmium, respectively.  
Results: Mean values of cadmium in the livers of sheep in  Zanjan and Sanandaj were 0.42 ± 0.13 and 0.35 ± 0.13 mg/kg, respectively, which had no significant difference (P <0.05). On the other hand, mean concentrations of lead in the livers of sheep in Zanjan and Sanandaj  were equal to 3.69 ± 1.43 and 2.36 ± 0.18 mg/kg, respectively, which had a significant difference (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The concentrations of lead and cadmium in the livers of sheep were higher than WHO standards. However, only the lead levels were higher than the maximum residue levels (MRLs) standard lists. The obtained results can be due to the activities of lead industries and factories in both cities, which may increase pollution levels in the water, air, and animal feed.

Full-Text [PDF 265 kb]   (233 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Food Safety and Hygiene
Received: 2021/12/23 | Accepted: 2022/02/19 | Published: 2022/03/16

1. Atalar M, Kucuksezgin F, Duman M, Gonul LT. Heavy Metal Concentrations in Surficial and Core Sediments from Izmir Bay: an Assessment of Contamination and Comparison Against Sediment Quality Benchmarks. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2013; 91(1): 69-75. [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
2. Sharpe RT, Livesey CT. Surveillance of Suspect Animal Toxicoses with Potential Food Safety Implications in England and Wales between 1990 and 2002. Veterinary Record. 2005;157(16): 465-9. [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
3. Thompson LJ. Chapter 37 - Lead. In: Gupta RC, editor. Veterinary Toxicology (Second Edition). Boston: Academic Press; 2012. p. 522-6. [Article] [Crossref]
4. EU Scientific Cooperation Task. Assessment of the Dietary Exposure to Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead and Mercury of the Population of the EU Member States. European Commission, Directorate-General Health and Consumer Protection 2004. Report No.: EU Scientific Cooperation Task 3. 2. 11. 2004.
5. Europian Commission. Setting Maximum Levels For Certain Contaminants In Foodstuffs, Commission Regulation (EC). No 629/2008. Offical J Eur :union:. 2008 [Article]
6. Watkins JB, Klaassen CD. Casarett and Doull's Essentials of Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2010. p. 361-71. [Article]
7. Zalups RK, Koropatnick DJ. Molecular Biology and Toxicology of Metals. London; New York Taylor Francis; 2000. [Google Scholar]
8. Hayes AW, Kruger CL. Hayes' Principles and Methods of Toxicology. Crc Press; 2014. [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
9. Lee BK, Kim Y. Association between Bone Mineral Density and Blood Lead Level in Menopausal Women: Analysis of 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Environ Res. 2012; 115: 59-65. [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
10. Gwini S, MacFarlane E, Del Monaco A, McLean D, Pisaniello D, Benke GP, et al. Cancer Incidence, Mortality, and Blood Lead Levels among Workers Exposed to Inorganic Lead. Ann Epidemiol. 2012; 22(4): 270-6. [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
11. Aliyev V, Kayaalti Z, Söylemez D, Söylemezoğlu T. The Determination of Fe, Pb, and Cd Levels among thalassemia Patients and Normal Population by Means of Examining Whole Blood in Turkey. Toxicol Lett. 2011; 205: S292. [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
12. Klaassen CD. Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 9th edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education; 2019. [Article]
13. Forte G, Madeddu R, Tolu P, Asara Y, Marchal JA, Bocca B. Reference Intervals for Blood Cd and Pb in the General Population of Sardinia (Italy). Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2011; 214(2): 102-9. [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
14. Bulat ZP, Djukić Cosić D, Malicević Z, Bulat P, Matović V. Zinc or Magnesium Supplementation Modulates Cd Intoxication in Blood, Kidney, Spleen, and Bone of Rabbits. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2008; 124(2): 110-7. [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
15. Skoog DA, Holler FJ, Crouch SR. Principles of Instrumental Analysis. Cengage learning; 2017. [Google Scholar]
16. Rouiller Ch. The Liver: Morphology, Biochemistry, Physiology. Academic Press; 2013. [Article]
17. Jaiswal AK, Yadav A, Millo T, Gupta SK. Standard Operating Procedure (sop) for Microwave Digestion System (MDS-10). Int J Med Lab Res. 2018; 3(1): 49-54. [Google Scholar]
18. Attar T, Harek Y, Dennouni Medjati N, Lahcen L. Dosage of Cadmium and Lead in Human Blood by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry. Ann Biol Clin Paris. 2012; 70(5): 595-8. [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
19. German Standard Methods for the Examination of Water, Waste Water and Sludge; Cations (group E); Determination of Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, Copper, Thallium, Nickel, Cobalt by Voltammetry (E 16). Germany: European Standards; 1990. p. 8. [Article]
20. Skoog DA, West DM, Holler FJ, Crouch SR. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Cengage learning; 2013. [Google Scholar]
21. Miller J, Miller JC. Statistics and Chemometrics for Analytical Chemistry. Pearson Educ; 2018. [Article]
22. Joint FA, World Health Organization, WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants: Seventy-Seventh Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. WHO; 2013. [Article]
23. Hunter BA, Johnson MS, Thompson DJ. Ecotoxicology of Copper and Cadmium in a Contaminated Grassland Ecosystem. III. Small Mammals. J Appl Ecolo. 1987; 24(2): 601-14. [Article] [Crossref]
24. The Codex Alimentarius Commission(CAC), The Principles for Food Import and Export Inspection and Certification, CAC/GL 20–1995; 21st Session; 1995. [Article]
25. Rahimi E, Rokni N. Measurement of Cadmium Residues in Muscle, Liver and Kidney of Cattle Slaughtered in Isfahan Abattoir Using Grafite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS): a Preliminary Study. Iran J Vet Res. 2008; 9(2): 174-7. [Google Scholar]
26. Rahimi E, Rokni ND. Determination Of Cadmium And Lead Content In Muscle, Liver And Kidney Of Slaughtered Cattle In Shahrekord Using Gfaas. Sci Res Iran Vet J. 2008; 4(1): 46-56. [Google Scholar]
27. Mansouri B, Ariyaee M, Rezaei Z. Evaluation of Bioaccumulation of Lead and Cadmium in the Muscle Tissue of Slaughtered Cow in Sanandaj City. Zanko J Med Sci. 2014; 15(46): 1-7. [Google Scholar]
28. Zeinali T, Salmani F, Naseri K. Dietary intake of Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Nickel, and Lead Through the Consumption of Meat, Liver, and Kidney and Assessment of Human Health Risk in Birjand, Southeast of Iran. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2019; 191(2): 338-47. [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
29. Massadeh A, Al-Sharif L, Dalale'h R, Hassan M. Analysis of Lead Levels in Local Jordanian and Imported Sheep Meat and Organs Using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Environ Monit Assess. 2006;115(1-3): 87-93. [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
30. Akoto O, Bortey Sam N, Nakayama S, Ikenaka Y, Baidoo E, Yohannes Y, et al. Distribution of Heavy Metals in Organs of Sheep and Goat Reared in Obuasi: A Gold Mining Town in Ghana. Int J Environ Sci Toxicol. 2014; 2(4): 81-9. [Google Scholar]
31. MacLachlan D, Budd K, Connolly J, Derrick J, Penrose L, Tobin T. Arsenic, Cadmium, Cobalt, Copper, Lead, Mercury, Molybdenum, Selenium and Zinc Concentrations in Liver, Kidney and Muscle in Australian Sheep. J Food Compost Anal. 2016; 50: 97-107. [Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Human Environment and Health Promotion

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb